After the French revolution in 1789 A.D. life in general altered completely. Shoes became less luxurious and more simple. In 1814 the sewing machine was invented, in 1840 the sole tacking machine. Shoes were made more and more in factories. Around 1830 ankle boots or "petit-boutons" replace ladies 18th century footwear. They were made on straight lasts with low heels and laces or elastic gussets on the instep or at the side. Around 1850 boots and heels became slightly higher again. These "bottines" mostly had a foot part of leather and a top part of textile and were closed by laces or buttons. Women's very long skirts were replaced by the crinoline and when women sat down, now their feet with a part of their ankles or legs became visible for the first time. The bottines enhanced the shape of those parts and shoes became a provocative garment enjoyed by men and understood by women.